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RUSHEWAR DAULAR AL-ANDALUS

Wallafan November 19, 2020. 11:07am. Na Tasiu Usman Abdullahi. A Sashin NASIHA
Ina ne Al-Andalus? Spain!
Me ya faru da ita? Rushewa!
Gabatarwa
Lokacin da nake dan karami
nake karance-karancen tarihi
na kan gani a littatafai da dama
musamman wadanda suka
danganci tarihin kasashe,
siyasa da zamantakewarsu;
wata kasa da aka yi can a
zamanin baya kuma ta rushe
mai suna Al-Andalus. A
hankali na iso matakin da na
iya karanta cewa wannan kasa
na daya daga cikin manyan
kasashen da suka ginu a baya
kuma ta jima tana wanzuwa.
Kasa ce da ta kunshi
abubuwan mamaki saboda
yadda aka tafiyar da ita bisa
adalci da zaman lafiya da
kuma cigaba ta kowane fanni;
a takaice dai kasa ce da ta
ginu bisa kyakkyawan tattalin
arziki, kasuwanci, kimiyya da
fasaha. A wannan kasa mutane
sun zauna cikin jindadi da
walwala, sun kuma rayu da
amincin juna.
Amma duk da wadannan
abubuwa sai ya zama cewa
lokaci guda wannan
kayatacciyar kasa ta rushe
bayan ta shafe daruruwan
shekaru da kafuwa. Shin
tayaya ta ginu? Su wanene
suka gina ta? Yaya mutanen
wajen suka yi rayuwa?
Menene dalilin rushewarta?
Wace asara rushewarta ta
janyo? Shin akwai darasin da
zamu dauka ta dalilin
rushewarta?
Dukkanin wadannan tambayoyi
da ke sama akwai amsarsu
cikin wannan rubutun wanda
na yi wa lakabi da “Rushewar
Al-Andalus a takaice” saboda
in dan yi karin haske a kan
wannan kasa da rushewarta da
kuma amsa wadannan
tambayoyi da ke sama.
Sannan wannan rubutu ya biyo
baya ne sakamakon alkawarin
da na dauka cewa zan yi shi a
wasu rubuce-rubuce na na
baya, amma saboda cikakken
bayani kan wannan lamari ba
zai yiwu ba yasa na ware
wannan lokaci dan yin bayani
ko a takaice ne don cika
alkawari.
Abun lura: kafin na fara ina so
mai karatu ya san cewa anan
ba wai kai tsaye nake nufin
rushewar kasa gaba daya ba,
sai dai ina nufin kwace ta da
aka yi daga hannun wadanda
suka daukaka ta.
Kafuwar Al-Andalus
A farkon ‘karnin musulunci
cikin shekarar 642 bayan
Annabi (SAW) yayi wafati da
shekaru 10, sai daga cikin
sahabbansa suka samu damar
shigowa Africa musamman
bangaren Africa ta Arewa
wajajen su Egypt, daga nan
kuma suka rinka wanzuwa
zuwa yammaci. Daman tun a
khalifancin Abubakar (RA) da
Umar (RA) musulunci ya samu
shiga wannan kasa da sauran
yankunan larabawa, sai kuma
bangaren Persia da wata daula
ta Byzantine.
Daga wannan lokaci wadannan
sahabbai da suka shiga Egypt
suka fara wanzuwa zuwa
yammaci har zuwa lokacin da
daya daga cikinsu Uqba Ibn
Nafi (RA) ya kafa sansani a
yankin. Wannan sansani da
ake kira Kairouan ya zama
wata cibiya ta haduwar
larabawa har ma wadanda ba
larabawan ba domin yin
kasuwanci, tafiye-tafiye da dai
harkokin yau da gobe. Daga
nan suka ci gaba da
harkokinsu har zuwa shekara
ta 711 lokacin da Musa bn
Nusayr (RA) yake mulki a
Africa ta arewa. Kuma a
wannan lokacin ne wani daga
tsibirin Iberia inda wani sarki
kirista mai suna Roderick yake
mulki, amma mulki ne irin na
zalunci dan ana muzgunawa
talakawa. Tsibirin Iberia kuma
daman yana kudu-maso-
yammacin nahiyar turai ne.
Yana makwabtaka da bahar
maliya daga gabas da
kudunsa, sai tekun atlantika
daga arewa da yammansa.
Amma yadda asalin lamarin ya
wakana shine sarkin wannan
tsibiri da ya mutu a shekarar
710 mai suna Witiza ya bar
‘ya’ya biyu wadanda ake
tunanin zasu gaji ubansu,
amma mutanen wurin suka
zabi Roderick ya haye karagar
mulki. Sai kuma aka yi rashin
sa'a shi Roderick din bai
kasance adalin sarki ba. To
yadda adalci da son zaman
lafiya na sahabban nan ya
karade duniya yasa wasu daga
wannan tsibiri suka gayyaci
Musa bn Nusayr kan ya shiga
wannan yanki don tabbatar da
adalci. Musa bn Nusayr kuwa
baiyi wata-wata ba ya tura
wani jan gwarzonsa mai suna
Tariq ibn Ziyad, shi kuwa nan
take ya hada dakaru 7,000 ya
nufi wannan yanki.
A wannan tafiya ne Tariq ya
kafa wani sansani a wani
tsauni saboda yadda wurin
yake da kyau da ni’ima, kuma
ya sanyawa wurin suna Jabal
at-Tariq, wanda a yau ake kira
Gibraltar. A wannan lokaci sai
sarkin nan Roderick ya ji
labarin Tariq a wannan
sansani, dan haka sai yayi
gagarumin shiri na dakaru don
a murkushe su Tariq. To amma
a wannan lokaci wasu masana
suka ce ai Tariq ya nemi
taimakon gida domin a karo
masa dakaru, wasu kuwa suka
ce a’a da wadannan dakarun
nasa 7,000 ya samu nasara a
kan wannan sarki Roderick.
To, koma dai menene abunda
muka sani kawai shine Tariq
ya samu galaba a kansu kuma
ya shiga wannan yanki da ake
zalunci.
Da jin wannan gagarumar
nasara da Tariq yayi yasa
Musa bn Nusayr ya hada
dakaru a kalla 18,000 suka
shiga wannan yanki. Bayan
shigarsu suka wanzar da
adalci a kan kowa, amma da
yake su ‘yan kadan ne akan
kiristoci da yahudawan da
suke wurin yasa basu yi
mamayar karfi-da-yaji ba.
Sannan suka daura ‘ya’yan
tsohon sarki Witiza a mukamai
a wuraren, suka kuma zauna
lafiya da kowa. Dan haka sirrin
samun nasararsu shine adalcin
da suka wanzar, zaman lafiya,
karamci, halayya na gari
wanda addinin musulunci ya
koyar.
Bayan kamar shekaru 9 a
shekarar 720 sai ilahirin Spain
ta zama tana karkashin ikon
musulunci. Bayan wannan
lokaci aka shafe lamarin su
Tariq da Musa bn Nusayr
saboda rasuwa da suka yi,
dan haka aka rinka sanya
jagorori suna ci gaba da ciyar
da yankin gaba ta kowace
fuska.
Abdurrahman I shine ya samar
da masarautar Cordoba
(Kurtubah a lokacin da ake
kiranta a larabce) a matsayin
babban birnin wannan yanki.
Bisa ga duk wadannan, a
shekarar 755 wannan yanki ya
gama haduwa; kan al’umma
ya hadu dan haka babu wani
sauran tashin hankali kowa
yana zaune cikin lumana, a
wannan shekara kasar Andalus
ta kafu ta hanyar sanyawa
wannan yanki wannan suna.
Mu hadu a babi na gaba...
- Mohiddeen Ahmad

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Tasiu Usman Abdullahi

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